Botanical Name – Papaver somniferum Linn.
Family – PAPAVERACEAE
Bengali : Postodheri
Hindi : Postha
English : Opium/Poppy Seeds
Telugu : Nalla mandu
Apuka is the synonyum of niryasa . Khasa tila , Tila Bheda , Khakhasaare the synonyms of the seeds.
An erect, rarely branched, glaucous, annual herb, 60-120 cm . in height. Leaves – Many, amplexicaul, lobed, dentate or serrate, linear-oblong or ovate-oblong. Flowers- Usually bluish-white with a purple base or white, Purple or variegated, 7.6-17.8 cm long . Capsules – globose, stalked, 2.5 cm diameter. Seed- reniform, black or white.
A native of West Asia, now grown in U.P., Hoshiarpur, and Jullundhar in Punjab, Rajasthan, and M.P.
In Nighantu Ratnakaram four varieties are described . They are :
- Jarana : White Variety : Acts as digestive
- Marana : Black Variety : caused death
- Dharana : Yellow Variety : acts as Rasayana (tonic)
- Sarana : different colours : removes metabolic residues from body .
Rasa : Tikta , Kasaya
Virya : Usna
Vipaka : Katu
Guna : Laghu , Ruksa , Suksma , Vyavayi
Karma : Kapha hara , Madakari , Grahi ,Sukra Sthambhaka
Curde opium contains about 25 alkaloids. Some of them are Morphine (10%), Codein (0.05%), papaverine , Narcotine , Meconic acid, Apomorphine.
These form 2 groups
(a) the phenanthres : morphime (10%) , codeine (0.5%) & the baine (0.3%) , which are narcotic and
(b) the isoquinolines : Popararines (1%) and narcotine (6%) , which are mild analgesic but not narcotic . Papavanine may act as muscle relaxant .
Atisara , Kasa , Darunaka , Jvara , Sula ,Klaibya , Nidra , Nasa .
Poisoning effects of Ahi phena
Its contact with skin may produce erythema, urticaria, and itching. When orally consumed , symptoms commence within half an hour. Injected form needs 3 to 4 min to show symptoms.
It first stimulates then depresses and finally paralyses the nerve centres . These symtoms will manifest in three stages :
- Stage of excitement : increased sense of well – being , mental activity , freedom from anxiety , flushing of face , tachycardia etc.
- Stage of Stuper : Symptoms like headache , nausea , vomiting , sense of weightin the limbs , giddiness , stuper , contracted pupils , cyanosis of lips etc .
- Stage of Coma : deep coma , flaccid muscles , diminished reflexes , pin – point , chyene-stokes breathing etc .
Fatal dose is opium 2 g ; morphine 0.2 g & codein 0.5 g.
- Stomach wash with 1.5000 potassium permanganate solution .
- Administration of N-allyl-normorphine (lethidrone or nalorphine ) 5-10 mg i.v. repeated every 15-30 min. i.m. or i.v. until respirations return .
Therapeutic Uses of Papaver somniferum
- Vajikarana – Acombination of Ahiphena , Akarakarabha , Jatiphala , Japatri , Ela , Lavanga & kumkuma (each 10 g) alongwith 5 gof Kapura are grinded together and administered orally (250-300 mg pills) ( Yo. Ra.)
- Kasa- Khaskhasa niryuha(S.B.M.)
- Atisara – Ahiphena and bark of Visatinduka (Kupilu) are mixed with honey and administered orally (Vai. Ma. ) .
Seeds, seed oil, unripe capsules, flowers, and exudates from fruit.
Dosage – 30 to 125 mg .
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