Children need Less Antibiotics


Children do not have to use antibiotics if having the upper respiratory tract infection, eye pain, skin wounds, toothache, acute diarrhea.

5 Diseases in children need less antibiotics

1.Upper respiratory tract infection

The cause of respiratory infection is mostly due to the virus.
Upper respiratory tract infections are a group of diseases: colds, acute rhinitis, sore throat, sinusitis, middle ear infection… Although they are composed of many different diseases, they all have some common symptoms: fever, cough, runny nose, stuffy nose, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, hoarseness, fatigue, headache, body aches.

Most respiratory tract infections are reversible, usually with 5-6 days of recurrence, and completely resolved after 2 weeks, so it is not necessary to use antibiotics for treatment. When children show signs of upper respiratory tract infection, parents should take active care such as rehydration, nutritional supplements, rest, increase the resistance for children. We can use some symptom-reducing medications such as antipyretics, cough drops, sputum… for children if the disease affects their sleep or eating.

In some susceptible individuals, such as children under the age of one, with impaired immunity, the disease may progress to severe disease with progressive symptoms such as rapid breathing, shortness of breath, respiratory failure… In this case, children need to go to the hospital immediately for examination and treatment in time. In case of multiple bacterial infections, the patient should be examined to determine the pathogenic bacteria and select appropriate antibiotics.


Discomfort and itching can be treated locally with mild antibacterial agents, not antibiotics.

Signs of inflammation, pain and eye infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi. When the eyes become inflamed, irritability and itching can be treated locally with mild non-antibiotics agents such as Propamidine isetionate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizinate… By killing the bacteria, they inhibit them from growing, allowing the body’s immunity to detect and produce antibodies against it.

Absolutely do not use conventional antibiotics to shrink the eye like chloramphenicol, gentamycin, tetracycline, polymycin… to avoid dangerous side effects. Improper use of these broad spectrum antibiotics also poses the risk of developing resistant bacteria.
When the eyes show severe pain and there are signs of bacterial conjunctivitis, the use of antibiotics eye drops are necessary. At this time, it is necessary to follow the doctor’s instructions on which antibiotics to use, how much time and how much to use.

3.Skin lesions

Children with hyperactivity are more likely to have skin lesions. When wound infection can cause latex appearing in place. However, not all skin lesions require antibiotics.

The simplest treatment is to clean the wound with regular antiseptic solution. When the wound forms an abscess, it is necessary to see a doctor to give the pus. Antibiotics should only be prescribed by your doctor, usually in the event of an enlarged abscess or inflammation spreading around the affected area.


Many cases of toothache do not need to use antibiotics.

According to the statistics of the British Dental Journal, 74% of patients visit the dentist for reasons of toothache are prescribed antibiotics. However, experts say that topical treatments such as root canal fillings or dental fillings are enough to solve the problem, without the need for antibiotics.
According to a World Health Organization report, antibiotic abuse is creating drug-resistant viruses. This is a great challenge for future generations, when faced with common infections, people may even die from a cut.

5.Acute diarrhea

Acute diarrhea in children is usually caused by viruses, especially the Rotavirus. Early hydration and electrolyte therapy are the most important steps. Antibiotics do not work in cases of diarrhea caused by the virus. Infected diarrhea caused by viruses that abuse antibiotics will cause intestinal discomfort, prolonged diarrhea and increased resistance.
In cases of diarrhea infection such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid… it is required to use antibiotics. However, parents are not allowed to buy medication without a doctor’s prescription. Depending on the clinical signs, the doctor will determine the cause of the disease to determine the appropriate antibiotic.

The disease is not severe but quite common in children, especially young children with weak resistance. Parents should limit antibiotic use; take care to help children quickly recover health without serious complications or infections more dangerous bacteria.

5 notes to save your baby from antibiotic resistance

The condition of children’s antibiotic resistance is quite common but can be prevented. Many illnesses require only intensive care, fever reduction with cool, cough reduction with herbal remedies, high water intake, rich nutritional supplements, immune supplements… not antibiotics.

Many parents mistakenly think that antibiotic resistance is caused by the body which no longer responds to the drug, therefore, they need to increase the dose or use a stronger one to cure the disease. But this concept is not true. Antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon caused by bacteria that are not sensitive, not destroyed by treating antibiotics. This is the process of natural selection. However, the rate of drug-resistant bacteria globally is increasing rapidly due to the use of antibiotics.

Many children use drugs in case of unnecessary (cough, runny nose, fever, sore throat…). Inadequate dosing, stopping the drug midway also makes the bacteria available in the baby become resistant to drugs. In case of re-infection, the baby may have to use stronger antibiotics with more side effects.
Bacteria change, become antibiotic resistant.
By remembering the 5 things below, parents will help children limit the status of antibiotic resistance:

Also Read – Childrens Cough

Do not misuse antibiotics

Parents should stop taking antibiotics for children when not needed, including the children used to before. Common diseases without antibiotics include colds, flu, viral fever, upper respiratory infections. Even children who have bronchitis, ear-nose-throat inflammation but still eat normally and have fun without signs of difficulty breathing… should not rush to use antibiotics. Instead, we should take decent care, relieve fever with cool, cough or sputum reduction with herbal remedies, boost water intake, eat nutritious fluids, and so on. Viral illness is usually resolved after 7-10 days.

Do not arbitrarily buy antibiotics

Parents should give up the mentality of using high doses of antibiotics with strong type to make disease immediately and definitely stop. When going to the doctor, do not ask the doctor to prescribe antibiotics; Do not arbitrarily buy antibiotics at the drug store. This not only makes antibiotics resistance, but also increase the risk of side effects such as intestinal dysfunction, weak immunity…

Use antibiotics properly

If having a bacterial disease, children should use the right antibiotics, at the right dose, enough time according to the doctor. Children are not small adults, so do not arbitrarily reduce the dose of adults for the baby. Depending on the severity of the infection and the type of bacteria, your doctor will select the appropriate antibiotic. Parents should not change the drug on their own if the disease is not resolved, or arbitrarily stop when the symptoms have decreased.

Prevention of infection spread

The habit of washing children’s hands before eating, after school or return from the amusement park will help children prevent infectious diseases, limit antibiotic use. Full immunization is also an effective way to avoid dangerous epidemics.

Strengthening immunity for children

Your baby’s immune system will be healthy if it is supplied with balanced and full nutrition; mobilize at least 30 minutes each day in fresh air; sleep on time and enough. Prior to each change of weather or after illness, parents can give the child immunostimulants (vitamins, zinc, betaglucan…) to less sick or re-infection the next time.

4 respiratory infections do not require antibiotics

Flu, pharyngitis, bronchitis, sinusitis largely are cured themselves after 5-6 days without antibiotics.

Children under 5 years of age can contract 4-12 times of respiratory infections.


Influenza in upper respiratory tract infection with signs of fever, sore throat, runny nose, dry cough or cough with phlegm… The culprit causing the flu is mainly viral, parents should spend time actively taking care for children, do not let them take antibiotics.

2.Sore throat

When a child has a sore throat, coughing or soreness, parents often worry too much about seeking antibiotic. However, most cases of pharyngitis due to viruses. Antibiotics only kill bacteria, not with the virus. Parents should give children mouthwash, saline nasal drainage, reduce fever properly combining meal care, immunity enhancing supplementation to improve immunity.
Some cases of pharyngitis with fever above 38.5 degrees; white spots on the tonsils; sneeze; swollen lymph nodes… we should suspect that they have strep throat. At this time children need to be taken to the doctor to determine the right pathogenic bacteria and indicated appropriate antibiotics.


Bronchitis is more common in children, especially under one year of age. Children who are infected with influenza like flu, measles, whooping cough… can turn into bronchitis. Preterm infants, rickets, malnutrition are also susceptible and often progress to severe pneumonia.
However, bronchitis is mainly caused by viruses, the use of antibiotics does not benefit the treatment. Doctors often prescribed cough drops, sputum, sputum, bronchodilator… depending on the degree of disease. Parents need to monitor the baby closely, only use antibiotics when there is evidence of infection.

4.Nasal allergic rhinitis

Diseases caused by allergic asthma to children with allergies or weather changes. Children often sneeze, runny nose, cough, headache, pain in the frontal sinus, mild fever… The allergy medication will be effective in this case. If symptoms persist for more than a week, or repeated sinusitis, children may have secondary bacterial infection. At this time, they need antibiotics and absolutely use as prescribed by the doctor.

Also Read : BABY OIL

The upper respiratory tract diseases most self-healing if the child is properly cared for as follows:

To eat well, do not abstain: Nutritional food full of nutrition to improve the baby’s condition. Sick people are difficult to eat and easy to vomit, therefore, they should eat light snacks which are easy to digest, divided into several meals a day, but still have enough energy.

Nasopharyngeal cleaning: Hygiene with physiological saline 2-3 times a day.

To feed your baby well: If your child has eaten a good meal, give him or her lots of fluids or electrolytes.

To dress suitable with weather: When it is cold, it is necessary for children to wear warm clothes. But when it is hot, we need to wear for them cool clothes, dry sweat often, avoid letting the blower blow straight to the child. If you turn on the air conditioner, do not let the temperature get too cold, avoid the wind blowing directly on your baby’s body.

House cleaning: Cleaning your bed, personal belongings. Avoid tobacco smoke and other potentially allergenic agents such as dust, polluted smoke, pet hair, pollen…

To use antipsychotics: For example, antipyretic drugs when children have over 38.5 degrees high fever; herbal medicine helping to reduce sputum and coughs…

To add immune enhancer: The time before the season changes or after illness, we can supply the child with a booster of immunosuppressant. We should choose products of prestigious brand, scientific researched and safety with young children.

It is caused by the body’s lack of vitamin D, leading to calcium deficiency that affects the development of the skeletal system. It occurs in children under 3 years old, the highest in 3-18 months. The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency due to lack of supply (less sun exposure, dark skin, premature babies, too dense baby …), in addition to rickets due to loss of vitamin D through the kidney …, resistant rickets vitamin D.

Disease manifestations:

Signs of calcium deficiency: crying, sleepiness, or startling sleepiness, loss of hair in the back of the nape of the neck, slow teething, enlargement of the head, hump or headache, decrease muscle tone, slow movement development (slow to flip, crawling, walking, standing …)

– If severe rickets have sequelae: ribs, Harrison, neck, legs, wrists, X-shaped legs, O.
– X-rays can mimic abnormalities: osteosarcoma, striated ribs, premature aging compared to age.
– The most valuable indicator is a reduction of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) in the blood.

Vitamin D metabolism in the body:

Under the skin of children are available pre-vitamin D (7 dehydro- cholesterol), under the effect of ultraviolet radiation of the sun, will activate into vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).The main source of vitamin D for children is sun exposure. Vitamin D is given as a dietary supplement in the form of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), derived from plants and fungi, which is added in formula milk.
Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are thought to be prohormones, reaching the liver and being converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) which is the circulating vitamin D in the blood. Upon reaching the kidneys, calcidiol is hydroxylated again and becomes a biologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). Calcitriol stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestinal tract, the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys and the mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from the bones.


  • Daily sunbathing: Leave your legs, arms, back, and belly for 15-30 minutes in the morning (before 9am). Note that direct sunbathing, means that don’t stand upbehind the window glass, will not be effective.
  • When kids eat: give them calcium-rich foods (milk, eggs, shrimp, crabs, fish, greens, etc.) and grease.
  • In areas where the sun is lacking, supplementvitamin Dis highly dependent on diet. All infants, infants, and teens must receive at least 400 UI of vitamin D a day. To meet this need, the

American Academy of Pediatrics recommends:

  • Supplement Vitamin D from the day of delivery for complete breastfeeding and partial breastfeeding at a dose of 400 UI/ day (10 μg cholecalciferol) until the infant is about 1l of milk per day or over 250ml of supplemental milk Do not use fresh cow’s milk for children under 1 year old.
  • Young children and teens should eat vitamin D supplements (milk, starch, egg yolk, etc.) and vitamin D200-400 UI daily.
  • Children who are at risk of vitamin D deficiency such as poor fat absorption (hypopituitarism, chronic liver disease, etc.), use of anti-epileptic drugs should be monitored for vitamin D levels and periodic replenishment. The dose is 2-4 times higher than normal.
  • When pregnant, the mother must have a reasonable working and resting regime. Vitamin D can be taken at 7 months of pregnancy: 200,000UI/ one time.

Some notes:

  • Young children may still be deficient in vitamin D if they are not exposed to sunlight due to high demand.
  • Dark-skinned children are more susceptible to vitamin D deficiency.
  • Eating too much protein also increases calcium loss through the kidneys.
  • Stunted children, whose weight and height are lower than normal children, may have stunted or not. The rate of stunting in Vietnam is still high, according to data from the National Institute of Nutrition 2007, 33.9%, ranked in 20 countries with the highest rate of stunting in the world.
  • Vitamin D is an oil-soluble vitamin. If the diet is too greasy, even with young vitamin D intake, it can not be absorbed.
  • The level of vitamin D in breast milk is low, about 22 UI/ l. Therefore, breastfed children should be exposed to sunlight regularly, during the winter months to take vitamin D supplement.


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